Chapter one: Introduction: Themes in the study of life

emergent property: new properties that arise w each step upward in the heratchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexitly of life increases
control group:an experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that caries only in the factor being tested
population: a lockalized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring
the bioshpere: all earths enviorments, including most land, bodies of water, and the atmosphere.
cosystems: Grasslands, deserts, forest, and oceans reefs are ecosystems. They include all living and non living things that react with water, soil, light and atmospheric gases.
Communities:a group of organisms living in a particular ecosystem. Including a variety of plants, a diversity of animals, fungi, and microorganisms.
Populations: consist of a speies living within a certain area.
Oganisms: indvidual living things.
Organs and organ systems: structural hierarchy of life, complex organisms. Organs carry out a particular function in the body
Tissues: they have a cellular structure and each kind is a group of similar cells.
Cells: lifes fundamental unit of sturcture and function. There are single cell organisms and mulitcelluar organisms.
Organelles: a component that make up a cell for example a chloroplast.
Molecules: a chemical structure consisting of two or more units called atoms.
ystems biology: studying biology with a focus on modeling the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
prokaryotic cells
: DNA not in a nucleus, lack some membrane bound organelles.
cientific method:
experimental group
eukaryotic cells: various membrane enclosed organelles, containing the nucleus which contains the cells DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, substances of genes in which information from parents is transfered to offspring.
hypothesis:answer to a well framed question, narrower in scope than a theory and subject to testing
deductive reasoning: a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
inductive reasoning: a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific obserations
scientific theory:a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise

Chapter summary:

    1. Themes connect the concepts of biology
  • Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life and also for the match of organisms to their environments.
  • New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy.
      1. Biosphere > ecosystem > community > population > organism > organ system > organ > tissue > cell> organelle > molecule > atom.
      2. an upward step from atoms a new property emerges as a result of interactions among components at lower levels.
      3. complet systems are broken down into simpler components
      4. Characteristics of life:
        1. Order- for example the structure of a sunflower
        2. Response to environment- for example a Venus flytrap closes its trap in response to a fly landing on it.
        3. Evolutionary adaptation- for example a camouflage frog
        4. Regulation- for example the regulation of blood flow in jackrabbit’s ears keeps the rabbit warm
        5. Reproduction- organisms reproducing
        6. Energy processes- for example a bee drinking the nectar of a flower and using the flowers energy
        7. Growth and development- the growth and development of an organism using its inherited information through genes
  • organisms interact with their enviornments, exchanging matter and energy.
      1. all organisms must perorm work therefore all organisms need energy
      2. energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers.
      3. Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization
  • Cells are an organisms basic units of structure and function
      1. cell is lowest unit of life
      2. Prokaryotic:
      3. Eukaryotic
  • The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the forms of DNA
      1. genetic info is encoded in DNA sepuences.
      2. DNA tranmits heritable information parent to offspring
      3. DNA sequences transcribe to RNA and the translate into proteins.
  • Feedback mchanisms regulate biological systems
      1. negative feedback the end products slow down the process
      2. positive feedback the end product stimulates the production of more product
      3. feedback is a type of regulation common to life at all levels.

1.2 The Core theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life
  • organizing the diversity of life:
      1. species are classified according to a system of broader groups
      2. Domain bacteria and domain archaea consist of prokaryotes
      3. domain eukarya include various groups of protist and the kingdoms plantae, fungi, and animalia
      4. remarkable unity shown in the similarities between different kinds of organisms.
  • Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural selection
      1. Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism for evolutionary adaptation of populations to their environments
  • The Tree of life:
      1. The tree of life extending back in time through ancestral species more and more remote.
      2. all life is connected

1.3 Scientist use two main forms of inquiry in their study of nature

  • Discovery science:

where scientists observe and describe some aspect of the world and use deductive reasoning to draw general conclusions
  • hypothesis-based science:
    1. science based on obervations. Scientist make hypothesis that lead to predictions that are tested
    2. Deductive reasoning is used in testing hypotheses
    3. hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable
  • a case study in scientific inquiry: investigating mimicry in snake population
    1. experiments are designed to demostrate the effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups that differ in only that one variable.
  • Limitations of science: hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable and experiments results must be retestable and repeatable.
  • Theories in science: scientific theory is hypotheses that is supported by large amounts of evidence.
  • model building in science: models of sturctures, ideas, and processes make predictions.

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Quiz Questions:
1. All the students in your class would make up one?

2. What is a controlled experiment?

3. Give an example of a testable falseible hypothesis about the effects of school uniforms can have on students.

4. protists and bacteria group into different domains because?

5. What are the 7 characteristics of life?

6. Who was Chales Darwin and what was his theory?

7. What is the difference between Eukartoic cells and Prokarotic cells?

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