Recent Changes

Sunday, December 11

  1. page Chapter 10 Photosynthesis edited Just Just to get http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgYPeeABoUs Now, Now, didn't that Here…

    JustJust to get
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgYPeeABoUs
    Now,Now, didn't that
    Here are some of the more important vocab words you need to know to understand the chapter:
    Photosynthesis-The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. It generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
    ...
    All Definitions can be found on dictionary.com or in the back of your AP Biology textbook.
    Below is an example of light reactions
    {photosynthesis4.jpg}
    gggggggggggggPhotosystem IIggggggggggggPhotosystem
    
    gggggggggggggPhotosystem IIggggggggggggPhotosystem
    I
    Vocabulary words for this chapter can be studied with this neat flashcard link!
    http://quizlet.com/3562938/ap-biology-chapter-10-photosynthesis-flash-cards/
    SummarySummary of Key
    ...
    energy in food.niggaaaaa
    10.2
    food.
    10.2
    The results
    ...
    and NADPH.
    10.3

    10.3
    Through the
    ...
    to CO2.
    10.4 Photorespiration is the ending result of carbon fixation being absent, due to hot, arid climates.
    {photosynthesis.jpg}
    SummarySummary of chapter
    Through the process of photosynthesis, light energy is converted into organic compounds (Oxygen and sugar). Water goes through photosystem II and l, where the Hydrogen continues to the Calvin cycle, and the O2 is released into the environment; giving living organisms the gift of air. Carbon Dioxide is absorbed, through the stomata, into the cell. Then, Carbon Dioxide goes through the Calvin cycle and exports Sucrose, or sugar. Carbon Dioxide enters through the stomata and Oxygen in return is released into the environment. Water absorbed by the roots is delivered to the leaves in veins.
    {photosynthesis3.jpg}
    (view changes)
    6:21 pm

Friday, December 9

  1. page Chapter 10 Photosynthesis edited Just Just to get http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgYPeeABoUs Now, Now, didn't that Here…

    JustJust to get
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgYPeeABoUs
    Now,Now, didn't that
    Here are some of the more important vocab words you need to know to understand the chapter:
    Photosynthesis-The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. It generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
    ...
    All Definitions can be found on dictionary.com or in the back of your AP Biology textbook.
    Below is an example of light reactions
    {photosynthesis4.jpg} 
    gggggggggggggPhotosystem IIggggggggggggPhotosystem

    gggggggggggggPhotosystem IIggggggggggggPhotosystem
    I
    Vocabulary words for this chapter can be studied with this neat flashcard link!
    http://quizlet.com/3562938/ap-biology-chapter-10-photosynthesis-flash-cards/
    SummarySummary of Key
    ...
    energy in food.
    10.2
    food.niggaaaaa
    10.2
    The results
    ...
    and NADPH.
    10.3

    10.3
    Through the
    ...
    to CO2.
    10.4 Photorespiration is the ending result of carbon fixation being absent, due to hot, arid climates.
    {photosynthesis.jpg}
    SummarySummary of chapter
    Through the process of photosynthesis, light energy is converted into organic compounds (Oxygen and sugar). Water goes through photosystem II and l, where the Hydrogen continues to the Calvin cycle, and the O2 is released into the environment; giving living organisms the gift of air. Carbon Dioxide is absorbed, through the stomata, into the cell. Then, Carbon Dioxide goes through the Calvin cycle and exports Sucrose, or sugar. Carbon Dioxide enters through the stomata and Oxygen in return is released into the environment. Water absorbed by the roots is delivered to the leaves in veins.
    {photosynthesis3.jpg}
    (view changes)

Saturday, November 19

  1. page Chapter 52 Ecology and the Biosphere edited Ecology Ecology and the ... is the stude up study of interactions between ... on a variet…
    EcologyEcology and the
    ...
    is the stude upstudy of interactions between
    ...
    on a varietvariety of levels,
    ...
    single organism untilup to a global
    Chapter Summary
    52.152.1 Ecology integrates
    ...
    decision making
    The

    The
    Scope of
    Gathering information for ecology is primarily done through discovery science: through observing the natural world. Ecology is studied at different levels of organization {Heirarchy.jpg} Here are the varying levels of organization of ecology.
    These levels from smallest to largest are as follows:
    ...
    Organismal Ecology
    This deals with the physiological, behavorial, and morphological ways and individual interacts within an environment.
    PopulationPopulation Ecology
    A population is a group of organisms of the same species. Population Ecology refers to the factors that affect population size, density, and compostion.
    CommunityCommunity Ecology
    Community is all of the different species of organisms living in an area. This deals with the interactions between species and tries to understand how predation, competition, and disease affect a community.
    EcosystemEcosystem Ecology
    An ecosystem includes the community and ALL of the abiotic factors of the environment like rocks, water, and the sun. This study of ecology deals with the energy flow of an ecosystem between the abiotic and biotic factors.
    LandscapeLandscape Ecology
    Landscapes and seascapes deal with all of the connections of ecosystem. This deals with the arrangement of ecosystems and how they relate.
    LinkingLinking Ecology and
    Through evolution, natural selection causes populations to adapt to their environment over generations - the time of evolutionary time. Ecology is studied in a minute-to-minute time frame of interactions between organisms and environment. The differential survival and reproduction of individuals over this time frame is ecological time. An example of the link could be described with a farmer and fungus. To remove a fungus population, a farmer would apply a fungicide, decreasing the population. This would be the ecological effect. Over time, the fungus will slowly grow immune to the fungicide, an evolutionary effect.
    EcologyEcology and Environmental
    Evironmentalism is a movement for the protection of nature. In turn, this practice has becomed linked to ecology. However, there is a distinction between ecology and advocacy. Ecologist educate educators about environmental issues. Rachel Carson is an important individual who published a book called Silent Spring. Doing so allowed the public to be warned of the harmful effects of DDT.
    52.252.2 Interactions between
    Biogegraphy is the study of past and presnt distributions of species in evolutionary time. Ecologists focus on two factors of an ecosystem to dertemine how and why species occur where they do: biotic, the living factors, and abiotic, the nonliving factors.
    DispersalDispersal and Distribution
    The movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density is dispersal. This provides to the global distribution of organisms. This concept is important to understand both geographic isolation in evolution and the current patterns of the geographic location of species.
    NaturalNatural Range Expansions
    Dispersion is important when organisms inhabit an area where they did not exist before. To determine if dispersal is the limiting factor to population success, humans have transplanted species into an area where they did not exist. If the species is successful and reproduces, the potential range is larger than the actual range.
    BehaviorBehavior and habitat
    Organisms occasionally select only paticular habitats. Habitat selection is not completely understood, but it does limit distribution.
    BioticBiotic factors affect
    Influences such as predation, parasitism, or competition may limit an organism's ablity to survive. Also, a species may be dependent on a different species, like pollinators to flowers. Predators, herbivores, food resources, parasites, diseases, and competition are all examples of living limiting factors.
    Abiotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms
    ...
    Estuary
    These are areas of transition between river and sea. The salt concentration of these are very high. They have complex flow patterns with a variety of environments. They support many fish and invertebrates.
    {Picture8.jpg}
    Intertidal Zone
    Is submerged and revealed by the tide. Organisms in these biomes are faced with the challenge of wave action. Many animals are able to stick onto a hard substrate. The upper zone experiences more air exposure and greater variety of temperature and chemicals.
    (view changes)

Monday, May 16

  1. page Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations edited ... 3. Which mechanism of microevolution has been most affected by the ease of human travel resul…
    ...
    3. Which mechanism of microevolution has been most affected by the ease of human travel
    resulting from new modes of transportation?
    ...
    random process? THE Video: Overview of Evolution in Populations and in depth explianation of the bell curves.http://youtu.be/odWnb1GHPfI THE END :)
    (view changes)
    6:39 am
  2. page Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations edited ... Example: This presents natural selection within birds. See how the birds like green beetles ov…
    ...
    Example: This presents natural selection within birds. See how the birds like green beetles over the orange colored beetles? This means that orange beetles will become more abundant over time because the birds will continue to consume their "favorite" beetles.
    {naturalselection1.gif}
    VIDEO: This video explains natural selection. It is about eight minutes. :)
    http://youtu.be/q76jw0ZB9hA

    Genetic Drift: unpredictable changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next generatio
    Example: Here is a beetle species which has been disrupted due to an unpredictable occurance.
    ...
    1. Natural Selection- Different success
    2. Genetic Drift- Change in allele frequencies
    ...
    follows: {asdf.png} HereHere are some
    ...
    this chapter.
    1. Compare and contrast the bottleneck effect and the founder effect as causes of genetic drift.
    2. Why might diseases pose a greater threat to cheetah populations than to mammalian
    ...
    3. Which mechanism of microevolution has been most affected by the ease of human travel
    resulting from new modes of transportation?
    ...
    random process? THETHE END :)
    (view changes)
    6:36 am
  3. page Chapter 23 The Evolution of Populations edited ... Example: This shows the relative fitness, directly according to alleles and also how it effect…
    ...
    Example: This shows the relative fitness, directly according to alleles and also how it effects the next generation.
    {relativefitness.jpg}
    Quiz yourself on the vocabulary here! ---> http://quizlet.com/1111814/ap-biology-chapter-23-vocab-flash-cards/
    Concepts In Depth:How does evolution occur to a population?-Only populations evolve over time and the key is variation.What causes variation in gene pools?-Mutation and sexual reproduction cause variation in gene pools.Sexual Reproduction/Mutation- refer to vocabulary section.*Varation in genotypes mean that there will be variation in phenotypes.What is an example of a quantitative characteristic?-height-weight^^^ sometimes it is easier to change these types of characteristics.Most species show geographic variation differences between gene pools of separate populations.Example: This ring species shows the same organism with different phenotypes, yet it's still the same species. Something strange is that the bottom left species and bottom right species can not mate, but everyone else can. {l_052_05_l.jpg} A Cline is something very relevent to types of organisms connected to a certain evniornment change. The direct defintion is: occurs along a geographic axis.Example: Physical changes within a species in an enviornmental changes; thus, these plants due to what type of area they are living in. {cline.gif} As far as mutation goes, rates of that happening in plants and animals are quite low.
    *Locus- is fixed if all individuals in a population are homozygous for the same allele.
    ...
    1. Natural Selection- Different success
    2. Genetic Drift- Change in allele frequencies
    ...
    follows: {asdf.png} THEHere are some questions to help you study for the test on this chapter.
    1. Compare and contrast the bottleneck effect and the founder effect as causes of genetic drift.
    2. Why might diseases pose a greater threat to cheetah populations than to mammalian
    populations having more genetic variation?
    3. Which mechanism of microevolution has been most affected by the ease of human travel
    resulting from new modes of transportation?
    4. What is incorrect about describing evolution by natural selection as a random process? THE
    END :)
    (view changes)
    6:28 am
  4. page Chapter 33 Invertebrates edited ... mouth has jaw-like structure CRINOIDEA feathered arms {33_40-Echinoderms-U.jpg} Try to matc…
    ...
    mouth has jaw-like structure
    CRINOIDEA
    feathered arms {33_40-Echinoderms-U.jpg} Try to match each class of phylum echinodermata to a picture above!
    they support the upward mouth
    suspension feeders
    (view changes)
    6:09 am
  5. page Chapter 1 Themes in the Study of Life edited KEY CONCEPTS: 1.1 Chapter one: Introduction: Themes connect in the concepts study of biol…
    KEY CONCEPTS: 1.1Chapter one: Introduction: Themes connectin the conceptsstudy of biology 1.2 The Core theme: Evolution accounts forlife
    KEY TERMS
    emergent property: new properties that arise w each step upward in
    the unityheratchy of life, owing to the arrangement and diversityinteractions of parts as complexitly of life 1.3 Scientist use two main formsincreases
    evolution:
    control group:an experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that caries only in the factor being tested
    population: a lockalized group
    of inquiryindividuals of the same species that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring
    the bioshpere: all earths enviorments, including most land, bodies of water, and the atmosphere.
    ecosystems: Grasslands, deserts, forest, and oceans reefs are ecosystems. They include all living and non living things that react with water, soil, light and atmospheric gases.
    Communities:a group of organisms living
    in their studya particular ecosystem. Including a variety of nature 1.1 Themes connectplants, a diversity of animals, fungi, and microorganisms.
    Populations: consist of a speies living within a certain area.
    Oganisms: indvidual living things.
    Organs and organ systems: structural hierarchy of life, complex organisms. Organs carry out a particular function in
    the conceptsbody
    Tissues: they have a cellular structure and each kind is a group
    of biology: Key terms: Evolution: The processsimilar cells.
    Cells: lifes fundamental unit
    of changesturcture and function. There are single cell organisms and mulitcelluar organisms.
    Organelles: a component
    that has transformed lifemake up a cell for example a chloroplast.
    Molecules: a chemical structure consisting of two or more units called atoms.
    systems biology: studying biology with a focus
    on earthmodeling the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
    variable:
    prokaryotic cells : DNA not in a nucleus, lack some membrane bound organelles.
    scientific method:
    experimental group:
    eukaryotic cells: various membrane enclosed organelles, containing the nucleus which contains the cells DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, substances of genes in which information
    from its earliest beginningsparents is transfered to offspring.
    hypothesis:answer to a well framed question, narrower in scope than a theory and subject to testing
    deductive reasoning: a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
    inductive reasoning: a type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific obserations
    scientific theory:a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
    Chapter summary:
    Themes connect
    the concepts of biology
    Evolution accounts for the unity and
    diversity of life and also for the match of organisms living today. Biology: The studyto their environments.
    New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy.
    Biosphere > ecosystem > community > population > organism > organ system > organ > tissue > cell> organelle > molecule > atom.
    an upward step from atoms a new property emerges as a result
    of life Characteristicsinteractions among components at lower levels.
    complet systems are broken down into simpler components
    Characteristics
    of life: 1.
    1.
    Order- for
    ...
    a sunflower 2.
    2.
    Response to
    ...
    on it. 3.
    3.
    Evolutionary adaptation-
    ...
    camouflage frog 4.
    4.
    Regulation- for
    ...
    rabbit warm 5.
    5.
    Reproduction- organisms reproducing 6.
    6.
    Energy processes-
    ...
    flowers energy 7.
    7.
    Growth and
    ...
    through genes 1.2
    organisms interact with their enviornments, exchanging matter and energy.
    all organisms must perorm work therefore all organisms need energy
    energy flows from sunlight to producers to consumers.
    Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization
    Cells are an organisms basic units of structure and function
    cell is lowest unit of life
    Prokaryotic:
    Eukaryotic
    The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the forms of DNA
    genetic info is encoded in DNA sepuences.
    DNA tranmits heritable information parent to offspring
    DNA sequences transcribe to RNA and the translate into proteins.
    Feedback mchanisms regulate biological systems
    negative feedback the end products slow down the process
    positive feedback the end product stimulates the production of more product
    feedback is a type of regulation common to life at all levels.
    1.2
    The Core
    ...
    of life
    organizing the diversity of life:
    species are classified according to a system of broader groups
    Domain bacteria and domain archaea consist of prokaryotes
    domain eukarya include various groups of protist and the kingdoms plantae, fungi, and animalia
    remarkable unity shown in the similarities between different kinds of organisms.
    Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural selection
    Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism for evolutionary adaptation of populations to their environments
    The Tree of life:
    The tree of life extending back in time through ancestral species more and more remote.
    all life is connected
    1.3 Scientist use two main forms of inquiry in their study of nature
    Discovery science:
    where scientists observe and describe some aspect of the world and use deductive reasoning to draw general conclusions
    hypothesis-based science:
    science based on obervations. Scientist make hypothesis that lead to predictions that are tested
    Deductive reasoning is used in testing hypotheses
    hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable
    a case study in scientific inquiry: investigating mimicry in snake population
    experiments are designed to demostrate the effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups that differ in only that one variable.
    Limitations of science: hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable and experiments results must be retestable and repeatable.
    Theories in science: scientific theory is hypotheses that is supported by large amounts of evidence.
    model building in science: models of sturctures, ideas, and processes make predictions.
    Images/Diagrams: {https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/C9PaBlcQ2WCShBnQDugreGDW3ePVpadYMEqwDZb2PNsdIOQMTdlcIVGwgimMIzsPV-Nh44cT-8DCXjhaJPrW2DO_O1h0pzsgsPIYRONgbrkspKnjIo8}
    {https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/pxMUuquAfRt1hcm_secWBdloHbt21wIEwBMBa7u7hpMOhSz1xRfmgST43jWFc32tCSfoK-Jzzd1O05etR0NTtPJ-wcoukQsqikp_Du8OPVu365ZZQ-A}
    Video clips:
    __http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uraqkShpqsI__
    __http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51z7WRDjOjM__
    Quiz Questions:
    1. All the students in your class would make up one?
    2. What is a controlled experiment?
    3. Give an example of a testable falseible hypothesis about the effects of school uniforms can have on students.
    4. protists and bacteria group into different domains because?
    5. What are the 7 characteristics of life?
    6. Who was Chales Darwin and what was his theory?
    7. What is the difference between Eukartoic cells and Prokarotic cells?
    Useful websites:
    __http://www.studyblue.com/#create/flashcard__
    __www.collegeboard.com/apcentral__

    (view changes)
    6:07 am
  6. page Chapter 33 Invertebrates edited ... · Pharynx bear jaws called trophy grinds up food · Parthenogenesis 3. LOPHOPHORATES( Ectopr…
    ...
    · Pharynx bear jaws called trophy grinds up food
    · Parthenogenesis
    3. LOPHOPHORATES( EctoproctsEctopro
    cts
    and Brachiopods)-
    · Have a crown of ciliated tentacles
    · True coelom lined by mesoderm
    ...
    Planarians- prey on smaller animals; move by cilia
    Alimentary Canal- digestive tube with separate mouth and anus
    ...
    when females produceprodu
    ce
    more females
    Ectoprocts- animals that look like clumps of moss
    Exoskeleton- a hard external skeleton studded with pores
    ...
    Existing Hox genes that cause the segmentation
    Appendages become modified over time
    ...
    open circulatory systemsyst em
    Specialized gas exchange organs to breathe through exoskeleton
    4 major lineages: cheliceriforms, myriapods, hexapods, and crustaceans
    ...
    6 classes: sea stars (asteroidea), brittle stars (ophiuroidea), sea urchins and sand dollars (echinoidea), sea lilies and feather stars (crinoidea), sea cucumbers (holothuroidea), and sea daisies (concentricycloidea)
    ASTEROIDEA
    {echinowatervasc.jpg}
    star shaped
    multiple arms
    (view changes)
    6:05 am

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